Patients with diabetes have shown lower performance in tests of cognitive function especially those testing memory, executive functions, and psychomotor efficiency. Cognitive impairment may have consequence on treatment compliance. This article provides indication for holding an interview, and reports a few screening bedside tests to detect a cognitive impairment.
Cognitive disorders CDsalso known as neurocognitive disorders NCDsare a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem solving. Neurocognitive disorders include delirium and mild and major neurocognitive disorder previously known as dementia. They are defined by deficits in cognitive ability that are acquired as opposed to developmentaltypically represent decline, and may have an underlying brain pathology .
This leads to the degeneration of motor skills and cognitive abilities, as well as behavioral difficulties. This is a rare disease, affecting a mere 7 to 10 people in , and affecting men and women in equal measure. The therapy involves treating the symptoms of the disease.
Aetna considers allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation HCT medically necessary for the treatment of the following inherited metabolic disorders:. Aetna considers autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation experimental and investigational for infantile malignant osteopetrosis. Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disorder in which deficient alpha-mannosidase activity leads to lysosomal accumulation of mannose-rich oligosaccharides. Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mental retardation, skeletal changes, hearing impairment, and recurrent infections.
Metabolic Syndrome MetSa clustering of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, has been associated with cognitive dysfunction and brain abnormalities. This review describes the literature on the impact of MetS on brain and cognition and suggests directions for future research. A literature search for reports of MetS and cognition and brain imaging was conducted for both non-elderly adults and adolescents.
Impairment of cognitive functions occurs frequently in chronic kidney disease CKD. The conditions most associated with this decline are depression, delirium, mild cognitive impairment and dementia. The mechanisms involved have not been established yet, but some factors, as neuronal damage by uremic toxins, cerebrovascular ischemic lesions, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, anemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, the endothelial dysfunction may play a critical role.
Therefore, the primary target of diabetic treatment is to achieve a good glycaemic control GC. In this chapter, we reviewed studies published up to September about GC and cognitive development in diabetic children and adolescents, as well as the nutritional approaches used for the management of diabetes in childhood, focusing on low glycaemic index GI diets. According to different studies, low GI diets effectively improve GC, which may reduce the risk of diabetes-related complications, such as cognitive dysfunction; however, the evidence is not sufficiently robust and the results are inconclusive.
Cognitive deficits, that is clinically relevant problems in cognitive performance, are commonly observed in people with both type 1 T1DM as well as type 2 diabetes T2DM. Both diseases are related specifically to slowing of mental processing speed, psycho-motor speed, executive functions and attention. Evidence for changes in brain structure and functioning accompanying cognitive dysfunction is accumulating. Chronic hyperglycaemia and associated microvascular disease appear to be the most important determinants of cognitive decrements in diabetes.
The format of this chapter is different from the preceding ones. Case reports and their analyses to will be used to create a more realistic problem-solving environment. This approach gives a fuller understanding of each case problem and its ramifications.
Preserving cognitive function maintains independence in older adults bringing major societal and financial benefits. Lifestyle factors such as diet are modifiable risk factors, which may help preserve cognitive function. Most nutrition research aimed at preserving cognitive function and metabolic health has focussed on individual nutrients and foods, not allowing for food combinations and interactions. A dietary pattern approach considers the entire diet including its complexity.